Tuesday, August 31, 2021

భూమిలోపల బొగ్గు ఎలా ఏర్పడుతుంది?


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భూమిలోపల బొగ్గు ఎలా ఏర్పడుతుంది? How is coal formed?


బొగ్గు నేడు మనకు ముఖ్య ఇంధనము . భూమి లోపల పరల నుండి తవ్వి బొగ్గును బయటికి తీస్తారు . ఈ బొగ్గు జీవులనుండే ఏర్పడింది . కోట్లాది సంవత్సరాల క్రితం ప్రకృతి వైపరీత్యాల వల్ల భూమిలోకి కుంగి పోయిన వృక్షాలు తునకలై లోపలి పొరల్లోని వేడి , ఒత్తిడి కి గట్ట్పడి బొగ్గుగా మారుతాయి . దట్టమైన పొరలుగా ఏర్పడిన ఆపదార్ధలనే జాగ్రత్తగా తవ్వి బయటకు తీస్తారు గని కార్మికులు . ఇలా బొగ్గు నిక్షిప్తమై ఉంటుంది . 

Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years. ... Some iron and steel making and other industrial processes burn coal. The extraction and use of coal causes many premature deaths and much illness. 

Coal formed millions of years ago when the earth was covered with huge swampy forests where plants - giant ferns, reeds and mosses - grew.  As the plants grew, some died and fell into the swamp waters.  New plants grew up to take their places and when these died still more grew.  In time, there was thick layer of dead plants rotting in the swamp.  The surface of the earth changed and water and dirt washed in, stopping to decaying process.  More plants grew up, but they too died and fell, forming separate layers.  After millions of years many layers had formed, one on top of the other.  The weight of the top layers and the water and dirt packed down the lower layers of plant matter.  Heat and pressure produced chemical and physical changes in the plant layers which forced out oxygen and left rich carbon deposits. In time, material that had been plants became coal.

Coals are classified into three main ranks, or types: lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite.  These classifications are based on the amount of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen present in the coal.  Coal is defined as a readily combustible rock containing more than 50% by weight of carbon. Coals other constituents include hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, ash, and sulfur.  Some of the undesirable chemical constituents include chorine and sodium.  In the process of transformation (coalification), peat is altered to lignite, lignite is altered to sub-bituminous, sub-bituminous coal is altered to bituminous coal, and bituminous coal is altered to anthracite.

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